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The artwork by Mark, which is furnished David Rohr, Ph. Presumed coevolution of insects and flowers is unsupported by macroecological data in a 35 million-year interval in geologic time from Barremian to Turonian (Labandeira 2014). Tetrapods might have had a surprising effect on the ecology of Mesozoic flowering plants but evidence of coevolution of dinosaurs and early angiosperms is weak (P. While composing the three essays on the origin and evolution of flowering plants, I integrated data from many scientific disciplines, which was key to possibly solving the riddle of the origin of angiosperms and certain coevolving Holometabola from disparate research perspectives. A cartoon was drawn by Sul Ross State University geology student Mark Munday in 1981. " The preceding statement is from Page 777 of Kevin J. 2013), which is strangely incongruent with the stratigraphic distribution of Afropollis throughout the Mesozoic. imply that the diversification that lead to living angiosperm species began sometime between the Upper Triassic and the early Permian." Further, ancient whole genome duplications (WGDs) are implicated in both the common ancestor of all flowering plants, and in the most recent common ancestor of all seed plants (MRCA) about 200 MYA, and 320 MYA, respectively (Jiao et al. Clusters of hermaphroditic pollen- and ovule bearing leaves known as bisexual strobili are the focus of most of the leading models of cone and floral organization (Melzer et al. Further, several studies of developmental abnormalities in cones of extant conifers offer a window for better understanding the origins of flowers and flower-like organs (Flores-Rentería et al. Many colleagues suggest a coevolutionary origin and later diversification of flowering plants based on co-radiations between specific groups of animals and seed plant hosts (Ehrlich and Raven 1964, Farrell 1998, Crepet and Niklas 2009). Could paleoecologists benefit by studying experimental, 3-D printed artificial constructs of shoots and protoflowers in theoretical morphospace? By measuring and scaling detached and shed foliar and cone- floral-organs, and by combining these data with studies of permineralizations, "fingerprints of developmental regulation" (quoted from page 723, Sanders et al. The image to the right is the passive insect trapping flowering plant, Darlingtonia californica (Sarraceniaceae, Ericales, Asteranae), photographed by the author at a seep on Eight Dollar Mountain located in the Klamath Region of western North America.

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Taylor and Hickey (1992, 1996), Loconte (1996), and Krassilov (1997, 2002), among others. "The idea is that plants have a plastic and modular developmental system such that simple changes in regulatory genes need not lead to inviability but can generate novel, potentially favored phenotypes." The preceding quotation is from page 83 of D. "Ontogeny in land plants can be viewed as a complex, partly hierarchical, series of developmental processes, which together with their underlying genetic controls, provide the raw material for morphological innovation. The interface between development and ecology may be studied from such perspectives, among others (Enquist et al. "In theoretical morphospaces, the axes of the reduced space are determined by a small set of parameters of morphogenetic or other biological models, derived from theoretical considerations rather than from the organisms themselves" (page 841, Chartier et al. Scaling studies of reproductive short- (spur-) shoots of living Ginkgo are particularly revealing to plant morphologists (Christianson and 2009). Cessation of growth in holometabolous insects leading to a new moulting cycle is triggered by PTTH that initiates the ecdysone growth regulatory cascade. Doyle (1991, 2000), Frohlich and Parker (2000), Friedman and Floyd (2001), G. The evo-devo research perspective could help us decipher more than 400 million years of insect and seed plant evolution and the enigmatic origins of flowering plants and interacting Holometabola. (2014), and Tomescu (2016), among others, are useful in understanding the developmental systems of animals, fungi, and plants. Several neurosecretory hormones play an important part in mechanisms that regulate cell division and growth including insulin-like peptides (Drosophila insulin-like proteins [DILPs] and bombyxins), chitenase-derived imaginal disk factor proteins, the steroid hormone ecdysone, local autocrine and paracrine TFs, and brain neurosecretory prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) (Nijhout 2003). Evolutionary-development of arthropod- and plant organs and molecular tool kits is "highly dynamic in evolutionary time" involving the evolution of cis-acting promoters (page 83, Baum 1998). Reviews by Rothwell (1987), Arthur (2002), Meyerowitz (2002), Becker and Theißen (Figure 1, page 468, 2003), Niklas (2006), Rothwell et al. A key paper on the control of insect body size by Nijhout (2003) outlines the molecular mechanisms involving cis-acting TFs and hormones and environmental controls (nutrition and temperature) behind growth and cell division in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Erbar (2007) summarizes past ideas on a supposed Mesozoic origin of angiosperms from the research perspective of evolutionary-development (evo-devo). Retallack and Dilcher (1981) presented in-depth discussion of Melville's ideas on a glossopterid ancestry of the angiosperms including a reanalysis of glossopterid fructifications. Others suggest that flowering plants evolved from multiple, unrelated seed plant lineages (Edgar Anderson 1934). 2002) and Nair's Triphyletic Theory (Nair 1979) are best placed in this paragraph. Eichler (1976) proposed that unisexual gymnosperms may be the ancestors of angiosperms. Finally the column labeled "Paraphyly or Polyphyly" denotes whether the scientific paper in question attributes the origin of flowering plants to a natural, intergeneric hybridization event, allopolyploidy, or events that brought together two or more distinct lines of seed plant evolution. Doyle and Donoghue 1986, 1987) and classic research by Arber and Parkin (1907), Edgar Anderson (1934), Axelrod (1952), Ehrlich and Raven (1964), Raven and Kyhos (1965), Takhtajan (1969, 1976), and Raven (1977), dovetail with- and potentially support a coevolutionary hypothesis on the origin of flowering plants, which is developed on the following pages of the web site for purposes of classroom and seminar debate and discussion. Doyle 2008) of perianth parts, microsporophylls, and megasporophylls to form a flower was an improbable and unnecessarily complicated saltational event punctuating a long and gradual evolutionary history of angiosperms. Simply put, massive, shortened bisexual cone axes bearing megasporophylls, laminar microsporophylls, and spirally-arranged foliar tepals, probably existed in populations of poorly understood Paleozoic seed plants described as gigantopteroids and Vojnovskyales, groups omitted by J. Doyle and others in their many published phylogenetic analyses.

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Studies of wood paedomorphosis may offer new clues on a possible Mesozoic origin of angiosperms (Carlquist 2009), but studies of potentially neotenous gymnosperm secondary xylem development in deep (Paleozoic) time are lacking. Additional discussion is available in several papers that reinvestigate conifer cone abnormalities (Flores-Rentería et al. A "No" response (the box is uncolored) indicates that the paper or book chapter in question favors a younger Jurassic or Cretaceous origin of flowering plants.

(2014), have contributed to our knowledge of the origin and evolution of flowering plants. fossil-based, molecular, phylogenetic and paleobiogeographic studies) and current viewpoints about the explosive Cretaceous diversification of angiosperms. Further, problems associated with co-radiations of angiosperms and insects are brought to light by phylogenetics (T. 2007) suggesting that evolution of certain clades of late Mesozoic phytophagous ants, bees, beetles, butterflies, flies, and moths might be independent of the explosive origin and spread of eudicot orders and families (Labandeira 2014). Root Gorelick (2001) challenges the validity of a biotic coevolutionary hypothesis on the origin of flowering plants. Deciphering the ancestry of flowering plants and their paleoecologies probably requires an understanding of the paleontology of "fingerprints of developmental regulation" (quoted from page 723, Sanders et al.